After wrangling with an older Kyocera printer on the Eee PC, the next level is to connect a newer HP LaserJet 1018.
The Xandros printer management actually recognizes the device by the correct id, but as printing does not work right after connecting, this seems to be just the id that is transferred via the USB connection and doe not hint at an actually working underpinning.
So I opened the CUPS manager and had a look around. Nothing seemed to be wrongly configured. But I remembered that the 1018/1020 series of HP printer needs to have a small portion of the printer driver transferred from the computer at startup. The driver needs to support that.
For Linux, the foo2zjStream project made a driver available that supports this functionality. As it seems (I haven't checked yet) Xandros/ the ASUS EeePC has this library xandros-foo2zjs installed by default. So it should work, but it doesn't. I changed into the GUI printer manager and clicked the preferences tab. Actually, the menu tells that the foomatic + foo2zjs driver is used but printing is still broken.